Migration: The return of the children to the country of origin, a migration strategy Soninkés?


Immigration Soninke in Europe has dramatically changed its face . In military immigration during the two world wars , she changed into a " labor migration " and eventually a " immigration wives " or stand in the middle of the 1970s, aided by the law on family reunification . This has resulted in rejuvenation and feminization of immigration Soninke . Soninkées several women from the villages , brought their children " elders " and thus sustainably continued their motherhood.


We then witnessed the birth of a second immigration soninkée enjoying a special status. French citizens right they completely change the face of Soninke migration. They are fully French , born with the same rights and duties as Dupont, the Roux Dubois ... They attend schools in the Republic equate a Western lifestyle , immersed in a completely different from their parents' social model.

These children grow up , find themselves torn between two diametrically opposed cultures. Language parents collides with the language of their country of birth or socializing. The " nuclearization " becomes the standard composition soninkée family ( Mom, Dad , kids ... ) making obsolete and gone "African family " in the broadest sense. As for the street, it deforms does it shape. The foundations of education and culture soninkées hardly necessary in the context of migration . Thus, a " socialization of African " children is required. Parents organize " cultural and societal pilgrimages " of their children to their countries of origin during the summer holidays . The confrontation between the parents, deeply rooted in the intricacies and depths of soninkée culture, and descendants , basically " influenced " by the adoption of new culture of their parents reveals the glaring differences between the two worlds. Darlings, pouponnés vacation time , some would develop strong links with the "African family" , while others would swim in a flood of prejudice. Also , the clash of two cultures would bare the cultural and linguistic delay "children" born in immigration. Thus, the first born frustrations that result in a need to " dispatch" of these children in the home country to learn and sustainably integrate social and cultural codes " Sooninkaaxu ."


This awareness added to the family pressure especially from grandparents often requires parents to think seriously about the " shipments " of long duration. Children would thus sent to the learning needs of the local culture, customs and traditions of the country of origin, kinship . They would discover the family lines . It must be said that countries Soninke family hardly limited to the " variable uterus ." First, they would discover two distinct families : the father and the mother . In each section , there are a string of brothers, sisters and cousins ​​of their parents. The child should be familiar with each party and give the same measure of respect, love , if possible , every member of the family organization . Therefore, each individual of the family constitution to participate in its education of the child. Similarly, the whole village becomes a " radar " to analyze , Suppress and ennoble behavior of these children.


Other reasons also explain the movement of children between France and Soninke Soninke African world.


- Crisis teenage rebellion :


Send her child back home is also explained by a desire to punish . I must say that village life is far from easy. Field work , linen and crockery river in winter time especially , the relative comfort as the village and the rule of stick on unnecessary verbiage variables are needed to open the eyes of the child about the true origin of its parents. When children fall into delinquency and trample on the social and cultural norms of parents, they are often the subject of simply sending countries . The procedure is broken . Going on holiday with one parent and the latter abandons you on site at the end of the holidays . How many children Soninke have experienced this procedure resembling a commando operation. The boys return home after a few years while the girls will be against an end of inadmissibility as they are not " shoes for their feet" in the family cocoon.


- Divorce of parents:


Immigration has radically changed the roles of men and women at home. If in Africa , men wear only the " pants " , the West refocuses the ball in the middle. " Pants " is not cut for the male gender. Women also adopted triplet "Metro , work, sleep ." This often complicates the relationship between the couple . To this must be added the history of family allowances granted by the French law creates several conflicts within couples. This has the consequence of family breakdown can change the lives of the couple's children . With or without downstream fathers , not to lose power over children , send them home.


- Learning the Koran and religious precepts :


For some time , it is also common to see several Soninké parents send their children to Africa to put in boarding Koranic schools. Known for their reliability and quality of their teachings , these schools usually run by clerics Soninke , welcome Soninké very often young people born in France . Memorizing the Koran would guarantee a ticket to France.


- Willingness of children and retirement.


It is not often said , but several children were left in the village by personal convenience. Love or dislike of France , they choose to live a part of their youth in the country. Many parents , after retirement, leave of France with all their offspring.


It should also be noted that these children , once the country are enrolled in local schools and continue normal schooling . Many of them are doing and come thereafter continue their graduate in France .


These " concerted expeditions" or "punitive" can be beneficial in many ways, if they are well managed in both upstream and downstream . They provide a perfect mastery of language and Soninke culture. They allow children to better integrate relationship and understand the meaning and the flowchart of soninkée family. Thus, children understand the true meaning of the emigration of their parents ( living , poverty, achievements ... ) . These children by gender is a huge help for domestic and farm work . Several memorize the Koran and other theological books . They have a double culture that allows them to move with ease in the Soninke community and demystify the cultural barrier through their experiences " blédardiennes ."


However, some children live poorly and these shipments pose innumerable problems for parents. Fugues arising from relationship problems are often counted. In addition, some children voueraient a visceral hatred for their parents , given the conflicting relationships they had with the host family .


In sum, the practice of bringing children in cultural and societal pilgrimage loses its luster. The death of grandparents, emigration forces , the tightening of output children of French territory , and knowledge of the workings and consular schemes have largely contributed to the neglect of this phenomenon.


Note: This will be the subject of a radio show " Leminaxu Bara " on Soninkara.com . Emission youth on canvas every Sunday from 21 pm ( France time ) . To participate , simply add a skype and contact soninkara.com account.


The radio link is : http://www.soninkara.com/web/radio-soninkara-live.html


Samba Fode said KOITA Makalou , www.soninkara.com