An old town of 1400 years: Glory and Decline Tuabou, the ancient capital of Gadiaga?



Former capital of the kingdom of Gadiaga the 16th century where Bathily have always been and continue to be still the reigning dynasty , Tuabou wants to regain his breath. This town whose existence dates back to over 1400 years was the traditional residence of Tounka and served as strategic point valiant fighter Mamadou Lamine Drame in 1886. Tuabou today drink the chalice to the dregs, and wants to shine to its past its new attraction.
It is a truism to say that our countrymen do not have very extensive geographical knowledge . Just ask a citizen living in any region a simple question about a place to be convinced . At Bakel , our team has experience in trying to locate the position of the kingdom of Gadiaga ( land of war ) .
To our surprise , we lost a lot of saliva before having the right information. That the city of Bakel itself is located in an ancient kingdom founded by Soninke who bore the surname Bakiri or Bathily , and does not even have to deliver battle to settle in the region. This medieval kingdom now seems to have disappeared from maps and even ... memories . According to history professor Abdou Khadre Tandia , "the Gadiaga was a Soninke settlement area . The inhabitants were installed after the decline of the empire of Ghana between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries . Before 1833, the Gadiaga was a single state, divided in two by the Falémé . Downstream of the confluence of the river stretched the Goye and Kamera upstream . " Bathed by the Senegal River and Falémé the Gadiaga extended over the lands adjacent republics of Senegal, Mali and Mauritania . However, his story is one of those all the more confused and less well known West African provinces .
A medieval town that has had its day
Located 8 miles north of Bakel , head of department , and 18 km from Moudéry , the capital district , Tuabou is bounded on the east by the Senegal River to the west by the pools and Lothiandou Bassam . The village covers an area of ​​2 km2 played an important role in the history of the reign of Gadiaga Bathily . The village is administered by a village chief, Demba Tacko Bathily . To talk about the history of the village of origin of Abdoulaye Bathily , Samba Traoré , Mady Bathily Mamadou Demba Cire Bathily , father of Mr. Demba Cire Bathily and Demba Traoré, current Attorney Tamba , the village chief summoned the 5 neighborhood leaders in his community and all the notables in the public square where important decisions were taken .
A delicious scent of nostalgia in old plane going back a little in time and speak their own village past. According Koly Bathily Tuabou or Ti Yobou means " say yes " and played the role of capital Gadiaga . "It was the traditional residence of Tounka that ensured sovereignty. Its founder Samba Woury Bathily was first installed on the right side before crossing and finally settling on the current site , "says Bathily . According to him, " Tuabou experienced two types of chiefdoms : the Tounka kings and village leaders , all from the family Bathily ." Dignity Tounka , according to Professor Abdou Khadre Tandia was reserved for the oldest Bathily , provided it is not blind, lame or leprous . " Below the princely family came Bathily marabout castes , free men, artisan castes and captives ," said Mr. Tandia . Mr. Koly Bathily Tuabou was founded in 1201. But according to some accounts , the village was established in 564, while others report that it was established in 525 .
In 1964, Daman tells Bathily three young came Guédé ( Podor ) to soak up the identity card Tuabou . They requested the creation date Tuabou because in the distant past , there were only Guede , Godo and Timbou . They found on site the village chief and elders almamy Damba , Mamadou Mody Ndiaye Boubou , Madjiguy Bathiliy . After lengthy discussion , they agreed that Tuabou 1400 years and had agreed on that. For Tuabou wise , no village is older than theirs. " Tuabou is the oldest kingdom in this locality . Even if no written for the check . He even said that at this time when Bathily Tuabou came to settle in the Senegal River was a small stream , " he says.
It was the capital of the kingdom was prosperous. Because Gadiaga operated gold mines Falémé and was considered "the land of gold." The kingdom lived trade. The French colonists who settled there paid a tribute to Tounka to cross the Senegal river which crosses the kingdom , was a source of conflict within the ruling family who was at the origin of the separation of two Goye . Mr. Tandia , the state unit of Gadiaga was broken in 1833. "At that time , there was separation between the Bathily Gadiaga and those of Kamera following a quarrel caused by the division of taxes levied French merchant vessels on the river . " According to some accounts , " after the civil war that broke the Gadiaga was divided into two : State Goye headed resided Tuabou and State Kamera who resided Makhana . The State of Goye closer Fouta Toro, sided with the holy war that led the toucouleur El Hadj Omar Tall western Sudan , while the State of Kamera sided with the Bambara kingdom Kaarta . The kingdom is completely divided , the settlers take the opportunity to annex the Gadiaga at the end of the nineteenth century. "
Tuabou served strategic point valiant fighter Mamadou Lamine Drame in 1886. "During the attack on Fort Podor , Mamadou Lamine Drame came to the Tounka to help fight the whites. At first he refused , but his allies pushed to accept. Once Tuabou entered the dance, all people have agreed to battle , which was that of religion , "says Koly Bathily . The people of Tuabou have earned an honorable reputation in the Battle of Sangsangué 7 km Tuabou . Its various kings also signed many agreements with Faidherbe .
The induction of Tunkas
Tuabou had several kings , the most famous are Samba Khoumba Diaman Boubacar Soulé , Samba Diangou Ma Naye , Sina Hawa Kissi Moussa Demba Silly, Mamadou Samba, Mody Diarra, Soulé Samba Demba Diangou , Samba Kadiata . According Koly Bathily Konko Gola was the last Tounka that gripped the kingdom. At times , the enthronement of Tounka was a major event for the whole kingdom of Gadiaga . It gave rise to a solemn and grandiose ritual ceremony . The ceremony was at the same time an opportunity for public presentation of the new sovereign , does not take place within four walls . It took place in the public square in front of the notables and dignitaries , members of the royal family and people. The new King is subjected to a series of rituals and oath . Even with the separation of the two Goye in 1833 , the Kamera and Gadiaga all Bathily those Tuabou and Makhana which are of the same family , find themselves Dramani . For a week, dances and songs. After that, there are only two people who have the right to speak : the Sownéra family, family Sougounanko , Chief Mangus . Everything he had , he shared with Mangu and he had nothing. The chief carpenters, completely hidden, had then put the cap on the head of Tounka . It finally gives practical recipes that are likely to enable him to carry out his difficult task . Meanwhile, there were battles , white came and changed things. But even today , Tuabou guard his kingdom. The social structure is based on a traditional organization with leadership of the village. All heads of 74 villages of the district of Moudéry chose the village chief Tuabou as president. His influence is still significant despite the administrative divisions .
 4600 people
Such a lady who grew up to be pretty and with whom time was ruthless ; the thriving village , which previously enjoyed a rich past with its neighbors , collapsing under the weight of anonymity. Completely forgotten , this village has not changed in the right direction . Tuabou is almost devoid of many essential amenities for the lifestyle of its residents.
The village now has a population of over 4,600 inhabitants, the majority is Muslim Soninke . It notes the presence of a Halpulaar community, Bambara , Wolof . The main activity is mainly based on agriculture ( sorghum, rice , peanuts, corn ... ), but also on fishing, farming and crafts. Agricultural activities are practiced throughout the year. "People engage in gardening , culture recession and cons season. At the pond Lothiandé there is 25 ha for irrigated speculation as cabbage , onion, salad, etc. . Regarding culture recession , there are more than 200 ha underutilized because the water level can change from one year to another. A pond also Bassam , 12 ha are sown , "said Tapa Bathily . Fishing is practiced in ponds collectively by the indigenous population of all villages Gadiaga . "
Tuabou feels forgotten by the local authorities and the government. Its inhabitants Tuabou not really feel not included in the circuit development is built in their country, as the gap in a dramatic way with other localities.
At Tuabou only schools, college and health post testify to the presence of the state. Otherwise, all other aspects of village life are borne by the citizens. "Agriculture is highly developed here, unfortunately , there is a product flow problem. Ultimately , we end up with a lot of potatoes rotting due to road conditions . In 2007, Diawara to leave and go to Bakel , we had to four hours while the two localities are distant only 15 km more , "says Koly Bathily . According to him , the villagers have a string of projects including the completion of a reorganization , redistribution of water and covering the access road network. We no longer need laterite , but paved road .
In recent years, the inhabitants of Tuabou feel excluded . And to such a fate , people turned for decades , to immigration. ( Tuabou knows the reverse movement with a strong presence in Mali and Gambia ) . Today, the village Tuabou no less than 320 emigrants located in France , the United States , Central Africa, etc. . And the immigrant community , says Bathily , is striving to overcome the deficiencies of the state. " The village is gradually emancipated through the sacrifice of his daughters and son . At 95% , they participate in everything. Especially the financing of public infrastructure such as mosques , markets, classrooms , etc. . " He says.
Today, this medieval village aspires to become the capital of the rural community to have more power and ensure its influence . "A big village like Tuabou , with more than 4,000 inhabitants , deserves more than a village status . For three years, there has been a walk in the borough to erect in Bakel region. Tuabou was then chief town of the district . We even invested more than $ 20 million to build a shelter to have premises in case there had been a breakdown . Since then, nothing has been done. Other carvings were made, and at this rate, Tuabou still depends Moudéry risk of being alone . " For the village chief, Tuabou , with its history, deserves better. And cope with the changes that are slow to come, the people of this locality seek the intervention of the new authorities to get them out of oblivion and privations imposed on them for years.
Reportage Samba Oumar Fall, Souleymane Diam SY (text )
Habib DIOUM (photos) ,